How To Work And Priciple Of Generator

What Is Generator

Generator: A generator is a machine which is used to produce electricity; It requires a magnetic flux conductor and mechanical torque. a machine which converts the mechanical energy is called a generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction presented by Michael Faraday.

Types Of Generator And Its Principle

(A) Principle- Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic lines of force, an e.m.f. is induced in the conductor.

(B) Types- 

1). On the basis of prime-mover-
  • Water turbine type

  • steam turbine type

  • Diesel engine type
2). On the basis of the excitation method used-
  • Permanent magnet type

  • Separately excited type

  • Self-excited type.
—On the basis of the prime mover

The driving system used to rotate the armature of a generator is called the prime mover.

→ Water Turbine Type



The conductors of armature coils are placed on the shaft of the generator. The shaft can be rotated with the power produced by flowing water. Water is a stored at a high label by flowing a dam on river etc. Now, the potential energy of stored water is used to rotate a turbine wheel. when the water stream falls from a high label on the vanes of turbine-wheel, then the wheel begins to rotate, which in turn rotate the shaft of the generator, as shown in the figure. and the generator produces the e.m.f.

→ Steam Turbine Type

In this generator, its shaft is rotated by the pressure of steam, discharged through a high-pressure nozzle. the wheel is rotated with the pressure of steam and in turn, it rotates the shaft of a generator as in a steam engine.

→ Diesel Engine Type

In this generator, its shaft is rotated by an auto-engine which is operated by diesel or petrol.

— On the basis of Excitation Method Used

→Permanent Magnet Type



In this generator, a permanent magnet is used to produce the magnetic flux. these are small generators in which are used in bicycle, telephone, megger etc. and are known as dynamos as shown in the figure.

→ Separately Excited Type

In this generator, electromagnets are used to produce magnetic flux. the poles of the field are excited from an entirely separate source of supply such as the battery or D.C. main. A.C. producing machines are known as A.C. generator alternators or alternators.

→ Self Excited Type

In this generator, the poles of the field are excited from the current induced by the generator itself. For initial production of E.M.F, the residual magnetism of the poles is used. some flux is always present in the poles and when the armature is rotated, an E.M.F. induced in it which to turn supplied to the field coils and it strengthens the poles flux.

shown in figure-





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